Alopecia (hair loss, baldness): what is this, causes, symptoms, complications, diagnostics, treatment, prevention

Description of baldness

Alopecia is the loss of hair in areas of the skin., which typically have a scalp. There are two forms of alopecia: scar and nerubtsovaya.

Scarring alopecia caused by the death of the hair follicle. This form causes permanent hair loss. The most common causes of scarring alopecia are:

  • Each erythematosus;
  • Hair loss due to injury of the skin;
  • Fungal keriony.

When non-scarring alopecia, hair fall, but the follicles are still present. This phenomenon is often reversible. It can also develop into a scar alopecia. Forms of alopecia include nerubtsovoy:

  • Androgenetic (hereditary) alopecia;
  • Telogen form of alopecia;
  • Ochagovaya alopecia – It is an autoimmune process, cause is not known.

Облысение - гибель фолликула

Causes of baldness

Baldness can be caused by many reasons, including:

  • Stress:
    • Illness or surgery;
    • Deficiency of vitamins and nutrients;
    • Prolonged fever;
    • Delivery;
    • Emotional / psychological stress;
    • Diet;
  • Hormonal problems:
    • Thyroid problems;
  • Medication:
    • Blood-thinning drugs;
    • Drugs to treat gout;
    • Chemotherapy in cancer treatment;
    • Vitamin A;
    • Birth control pills;
    • Antidepressants;
    • High blood pressure and medicines for its treatment;
  • Allergicheskaya reaction to drugs;
  • Radiatsionnaya therapy;
  • Infection:
  • Autoimmune disorders;
  • Lupus;
  • Anemia;
  • Too tightened hair:
    • Delaying hair in a bun;
    • Twisting the so-called Dredd;
    • Using styling and hair care appliances with high temperature (It can burn the hair follicle);
    • Twisting and pulling hair out due to emotional problems;
  • Genetic disorders;
  • Inborn errors – can include problems with the hair shaft.

Risk factors

Factors, which increases the risk of alopecia:

  • The presence of persons in the family, prone to baldness;
  • Age – probability of older balding above;
  • Pregnancy;
  • Stress;
  • Poor diet.

Symptoms of alopecia

Symptoms depend on the type of alopecia hair loss. Some of the more common symptoms include:

Male pattern baldness:

  • Thinning Hair;
  • Hair loss at the top of the head.

Hair loss in women:

  • Thinning Hair;
  • Hair loss at combing.

Ochagovaya alopecia:

  • Rapid hair loss;
  • Round or oval patches of hair loss;
  • Sometimes tiny hairs are visible in areas falling.

Alopecia, stress-related:

  • The gradual loss of hair;
  • Hair fall in low pulling.


  • Outbreaks of hair loss;
  • The foci visible black dots;
  • Itch;
  • Inflammation (erythema).

Diagnosis of alopecia

The doctor conducts a physical inspection, paying attention to the area of ​​hair loss.

A physical examination may also include:

  • Slightly pulling hair;
  • Sampling locations skin inflammation, to investigate microscopically;
  • Analysis of hair samples;
  • Checking hair loss on other parts of the body.

Ask a question about:

  • Diet;
  • Hair Care;
  • Use of medicines;
  • History of previous illnesses and the presence of family members with hair loss;
  • Pregnancy, Menopause, and monthly menstrual cycles.

Other tests may include:

  • Blood tests – to help identify the causes, which can cause hair loss;
  • A biopsy of the scalp – the selection of a small sample of tissue, which will be analyzed under the microscope.

Treatment for baldness

Treatment will depend on the cause of the disease. Treatment includes:


For the treatment of conditions, associated with:

  • Hormonal imbalance;
  • Taking medicines, which can cause hair loss;
  • Fungal infections.

Direct treatment of baldness

  • For men – prescription drug (finasteride, against baldness). Pregnant women are prohibited from using this drug. Even a small amount absorbed through the skin of the hands can cause birth defects in the fetus;
  • The use of OTC drugs (minoxidil for hair loss) – You should be used regularly. If you have heart problems, Before using this medication, you should consult with your doctor;
  • Steroid injections into the scalp, to accelerate the regrowth of hair in alopecia areata.

Alternative therapies

  • When an allergen immunotherapy is applied to the scalp, causing local reaction, such as redness, itch, and also causes hair growth. You can also try, if other methods do not work;
  • Phototherapy used to treat patients with alopecia areata. Usually the course is 4-6 months.

Lifestyle Changes

You must take good care of hair, Avoid pulling hair, high temperatures on the scalp. If the cause of alopecia is the emotional stress – learn stress management techniques.


Surgery may include:

  • Hair transplantation. Hair is taken from the back and sides of the head and transplanted to the bald patches. It may be necessary to 300 transplantatov. Maybe, the operation will have to do in several stages;
  • Removing the skin from head to areas with hair loss and hair pulling sections into place remote.

Treatment effects of chemotherapy

  • The degree of hair loss may be minimal, moderate or severe;
  • The problem is temporary and completely reversible after chemotherapy;
  • Currently, no drugs, to reduce the risk of baldness, related to cancer treatment.

Prevention of hair loss

There is no way to avoid baldness, particularly males. However, the implementation of some rules may reduce this risk:

  • It is not recommended to pull your hair tightly into a ponytail, pigtails, or use curlers;
  • It is desirable to study stress management techniques;
  • It is necessary to seek medical care for acute illnesses and to manage chronic conditions;
  • We need to eat healthy, a well-balanced diet.

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