Description kidney transplant
Kidney transplant – surgery to replace diseased or damaged kidney donor kidney. The donor may be a relative or friend. Also, a donor can be a dead man.
Causes kidney transplant
Kidney transplant performed, to replace kidney, which no longer fulfills its functions and can not be cured. Grafting can also be accomplished, if the kidney was removed (eg, in the treatment of cancer). Kidney transplant is required, only if both kidneys are not working. Kidneys are often damaged for the following reasons:
- High blood pressure;
- Systemic lupus erythematosus;
- Interstitial nephritis;
- Multicystic kidney disease;
- Damage from severe pyelonephritis (inflammation in the kidneys, often due to bacterial infection).
More 90% of transplanted kidneys from deceased donors continue to work for one year. The kidney from a living donor lasts much longer.
Possible complications of kidney transplant
If you plan to kidney transplantation, you need to know about possible complications, which may include:
- Rejection of the new kidney;
- Leaks in the body of urine;
- The formation of blood clots;
- Damage to nerves and blood vessels;
- Damage to neighboring organs;
- Urinary tract obstruction;
- The risk of developing cancer due to prolonged use of immunosuppressants.
Some factors, that may increase the risk of complications:
- Existing diseases, especially heart disease, light, liver;
- Autoimmune diseases;
- Current infection;
- HIV infection;
- Age (young or old) patient or donor;
- Poor compatibility of the patient and the donor tissue;
- Previous unsuccessful kidney transplant;
- Disease, that, probably, will lead to a repetition of renal failure with a new kidney;
We need to discuss these risks with your doctor before surgery.
How is kidney transplant?
Preparation for the procedure
There is a shortage of donors, so you can expect a transplant for a long period of time. Maybe, you need to wear a cell phone, which will allow the clinic to contact you, if a donor kidney becomes available.
Doctor, probably, appoint or perform the following:
- Medical checkup;
- Revision of the list of accepted medicines;
- Blood tests (including chemical blood parameters, liver function tests, susceptibility to bleeding, and testing for the presence of infection);
- Checking tissue compatibility;
- Electrocardiogram – test, which detects heart activity by measurement of electrical current through the heart muscle;
- Chest X-ray – test, that uses radioactive radiation to take pictures of the structures inside the thorax;
- Psychological testing and counseling, that will help you prepare for the transplant.
In the run-up to the procedure:
- We must continue dialysis in accordance with the instructions of the doctor;
- Consult your doctor about the drugs taken. A week before surgery you may be asked to stop taking some medicines:
- Anti-inflammatory drugs (eg, aspirin);
- Blood thinners, such as clopidogrel (Plaviks) or warfarin;
- It is necessary to take medication for other purposes. Do not take the drug without consulting your doctor;
- The night before, you can have a light meal. Do not eat or drink the night before surgery;
- We need to organize a trip for the operation and back home from the hospital;
- Organize home care after surgery.
Used general anesthesia, which blocks any pain and the patient support in a sleep state during operation. Administered intravenously in the arm or hand.
Procedure kidney transplantation
The doctor makes an incision in the lower abdomen. The donor kidney will be sewn to the artery, vein and ureter (muscular tube, through which the urine flows into the bladder). In most cases, kidney infection left in place. The doctor sews up the incision. The new kidney may start producing urine immediately or within a short period of time.
Immediately after kidney transplant
The bladder catheter is inserted, which is connected to an apparatus for collecting urine.
How long will a kidney transplant?
Duration of operation – 3-6 hours.
Kidney transplant – Will it hurt?
The pain will be felt during the recovery process. The doctor will give pain medicine.
The average time of stay in the hospital after kidney transplantation
The procedure is performed in a hospital. Typically, the length of stay in hospital is 1-2 of the week. The doctor can extend the period of stay, If there are complications.
Care after kidney transplantation
Care in a hospital
During recovery, the hospital is necessary:
- Get out of bed and start to move on the next day after surgery;
- We need to breathe deeply and cough 10-20 every hour. This will help you easy to work better after surgery;
- Take immunosuppressive drugs – you'll have to take them the rest of the life. These drugs reduce the likelihood, that the body will reject the new kidney.
When you return home, Follow these steps:, to ensure the normal recovery:
- Take your medicines, prescribed by a doctor:
- Steroids, to reduce the likelihood of inflammation new kidney;
- Mochegonnыe drugs, to help the body get rid of excess fluid;
- The new kidney must be periodically examined. Come designated tests and inspection, as indicated by a physician;
- Daily weigh. Besides, you need to measure the amount of liquid, you consume and the amount of urine;
- It is necessary to limit the amount of salt and protein;
- It is necessary to avoid alcohol, at least one year after surgery;
- Ask the doctor, when it is safe to shower, bathe, or to expose the surgical site to water;
- Be sure to follow your doctor's instructions.
After completing the recovery process, you will be able to return to work and normal activities.
Contact your doctor after kidney transplantation
After discharge from the hospital need to see a doctor, If the following symptoms:
- Signs of infection, including fever and chills;
- Redness, edema, increased pain, bleeding or discharge from the incision;
- The absence of urination or release a small amount of urine;
- Pain, burning, frequent urination or persistent blood in the urine;
- Vomiting, black or tarry stools, diarrhea or constipation;
- Pain or stomach cramps;
- Pain in the throat or mouth sores;
- Cough, breathlessness, or chest pain;
- Coughing up blood;
- Strong headache;
- Headache, confusion, dizziness or loss of consciousness;
- Pain and / or swelling of the legs, calves and feet;
- High blood pressure;
- Weight gain of more than one kilogram per day.
In the event of a serious condition or threat to life should immediately call an ambulance.