Convulsive seizure, access, cramp: what is this, causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, prevention
Seizures; Secondary seizures; Seizure – secondary; Convulsions; Epileptic seizure
Seizures – common neurological symptom, which affects millions of people around the world. They are characterized by sudden abnormal electrical activity in the brain., which can cause a variety of symptoms, including loss of consciousness, convulsions and abnormal movements.
What is a seizure??
A seizure is a sudden uncontrolled disturbance of electrical activity in the brain., which can cause changes in behavior, movements or sensations. This can be a single event or a recurring state.. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors., including head trauma, infection, genetic factors and brain abnormalities.
Types of seizures
There are two main types of seizures - focal and generalized. Focal seizures occur in a specific part of the brain and can cause local symptoms., such as muscle twitching or sensory changes. Generalized seizures affect the entire brain and can cause a variety of symptoms., including loss of consciousness, cramps and muscle rigidity.
Causes of seizures
Seizures of all types are caused by abnormal electrical activity of the brain.
The causes of seizures can be:
- Abnormal levels of sodium or glucose in the blood
- Brain infection, including meningitis and encephalitis
- Brain damage, which occurs in the baby during childbirth
- Brain problems, arising before birth (congenital defects of the brain)
- Encephaloma (rarely)
- Drug abuse
- Electric shock
- Fever (especially in young children )
- Head injury
- heart disease
- Heat sickness ( heat intolerance )
- Phenylketonuria ( PKU ), which can cause seizures in infants.
- Street drugs, such as angel dust (PCP), cocaine, amfetaminы
- Toxemia of pregnant women
- Accumulation of toxins in the body due to liver or kidney failure
- Very high blood pressure ( malignant hypertension )
- Venomous bites and stings (eg, snake bite )
- Avoiding alcohol or certain medications after consuming them for a long time
Sometimes the reason can't be found. This is called idiopathic seizures.. They are commonly seen in children and young adults, but can occur at any age. May have a family history of epilepsy or seizures.
If seizures recur after treating the underlying problem, this condition is called epilepsy.
It might be hard to tell, does anyone have a seizure. Some seizures cause a person to have only a small epileptic seizure.. It may go unnoticed.
The specific symptoms depend on the fact that, which part of the brain is affected. Symptoms occur suddenly and may include:
- Short-term dimming, followed by a period of confusion (a person cannot remember for a short time)
- Changes in behavior, such as picking clothes
- Drooling or foaming at the mouth
- Uncontrolled eye movements
- Grunting and snorting sounds
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Mood changes, such as sudden anger, inexplicable fear, panic, joy or laughter
- Shaking the whole body
- Sudden fall
- Bitter or metallic taste
- Gritted teeth
- Temporary respiratory arrest
- Uncontrolled muscle spasms with twitching and twitching of the limbs
Symptoms may stop after a few seconds or minutes or continue until 15 minutes. They rarely last longer..
Before an attack, a person may have warning symptoms, such as:
- Fear or anxiety
- Dizziness (feeling, as if you are spinning or moving)
- Visual symptoms (such as flashing bright lights, spots or wavy lines in front of the eyes)
When to contact a healthcare professional
If you or someone you know has a seizure, it is important to seek immediate medical attention. In some cases, seizures can be a sign of a serious illness., requiring immediate treatment. You should contact your healthcare professional, if:
- Seizure lasts more than five minutes
- A person does not regain consciousness after an attack
- The person has a high fever or difficulty breathing during an attack.
- A person experiences several attacks in a row
- A person with a history of seizures had seizures, but he is experiencing a new or different type of seizure.
- A person experiences an attack for the first time
Questions, that your doctor may ask
When you see your doctor about seizures, he will ask you a lot of questions, to help diagnose the cause of seizures. Some common questions include:
- When did you first start having seizures??
- How often do you have seizures??
- What do your seizures look like??
- Are there any triggers?, that, apparently, cause your seizures?
- Do you have a family history of seizures or epilepsy??
- Have you recently had head injuries or any other injuries??
Diagnosis of seizures
Diagnosing seizures can be a complicated process., which includes many tests and procedures. Your doctor may order blood tests, imaging studies and electroencephalogram (EEG) to monitor brain activity. They may also ask you to keep a seizure diary., to track the frequency and duration of your seizures.
Treatment of seizures
Treatment of seizures depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, seizures can be controlled with medication., such as antiepileptic drugs (AEP), which can help prevent the occurrence of seizures. Nonetheless, antiepileptic drugs may have side effects, and may take some time, to find the right medicine and dosage, which are right for you.
In some cases, surgery may be required to treat seizures.. This may include removing part of the brain, seizure-inducing, or device implantation, which can help regulate brain activity.
For some people, lifestyle changes can help manage seizures.. This may include getting enough sleep., avoiding triggers, such as stress or certain foods, and avoidance of alcohol and drugs.
Home Treatment for Seizures
Most seizures stop on their own.. But during a seizure, a person can be hurt..
When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect a person from injury.:
- Try to prevent the fall. Put the person on the ground in a safe place. Clear the area of furniture or other sharp objects.
- Put a person's head underneath.
- Loosen tight clothing, especially around the neck.
- Turn the person on their side. If vomiting occurs, it helps to make sure, that the vomit did not enter the lungs.
- Look for a medical identification bracelet with removal instructions.
- Stay with the person, until he recovers or until professional medical care arrives.
What Friends and Family Members Should NOT Do:
- DO NOT hold back (don't try to hold back) man.
- DO NOT place anything between a person's teeth during a seizure (including your fingers).
- DO NOT try to hold a person's tongue.
- DO NOT move the person, if he is not in danger or is not near something dangerous.
- DO NOT TRY TO FORCE THE PERSON TO STOP CONVULSIONS. They don't control the attack and don't know., what is happening at the moment.
- DO NOT give the person anything orally, until the convulsions stop and the person completely wakes up and comes to his senses..
- DO NOT START CPR, until the attack clearly stops, and a person does not breathe or does not have a pulse.
If an infant or child has a convulsive seizure during a high fever, slowly cool the child with warm water. DO NOT place your child in a cold bath. Call your child's health care provider and ask, what you should do next. Besides, ask, is it possible to give a child acetaminophen (tylenol), when he wakes up.
Prevention of seizures
Although it is not always possible to prevent seizures, there are some steps, you can take, to reduce the risk. These include:
- Take your medication as prescribed
- Get plenty of sleep
- Avoid Triggers, such as stress, certain foods and alcohol
- Follow your diet and exercise
- Seek treatment for any underlying medical conditions, which can cause seizures.
Seizures can be a frightening and potentially dangerous condition., but with the right treatment and management strategies, many people can live full and active lives..
If you or someone you know is experiencing seizures, it is important to seek immediate medical attention. С помощью врача вы можете работать вместе, чтобы найти лучший план лечения для ваших индивидуальных потребностей.
Used sources and literature
Krumholz A, Wiebe S, Gronseth GS, et al. Evidence-based guideline: management of an unprovoked first seizure in adults: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology. 2015;84(16):1705-1713. PMID: 25901057 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25901057/.
Maciel CB, Elie-Turrene M-C. Seizure. In: Walls RM, ed. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 92.
Mikati MA, Tchapyjnikov D. Seizures in childhood. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Bloom NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 611.
Templer JW, School SU. Diagnosis and classification of seizures and epilepsy. In: Winn HR, ed. Youmans and Winn Neurological Surgery. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 80.