Neurosis is a collective name referring to a group of functional psychogenic disorders that tend to be protracted. A single-valued definition in medicine and biology has not received neurosis, and can be considered as a functional disorder of higher nervous activity.
Neurosis - Causes
Usually, the factor provoking the emergence of neuroses is conflicts, both external and internal, long-term stress and psychological trauma.
Other causes of neuroses:
- environmental fatigue;
- the effect of radiation;
- suffered severe illness.
Considering neuroses, Karen Horney (American psychoanalyst and psychologist) believed that neurosis is a protective reaction of the psyche from adverse social factors. It can be parental controlling love, humiliation, social isolation, disdain, aggression. To protect themselves from these manifestations, the psyche forms a kind of protection: from people, to people and even against people. Movement from people is manifested by the need for independence, freedom, and distance. Movement towards people is manifested by the need for submission, love, submission, protection. Movement against people is manifested by the need for success, recognition and triumph. Neurotics have all three types, with one dominant.
Today, there are such psychological factors in the development of neuroses:
- features and conditions for the development of the personality;
- peculiarities of upbringing;
- level of claims;
- relationship with society.
And biological - functional failure of neurophysiological and neurotransmitter systems that make people more susceptible to psychogenic effects.
Neurosis - Symptoms of a neurosis
There are mental symptoms:
- emotional ill-being, mood instability;
- communication problems;
- distorted self-esteem;
- the experience of anxiety, fears, panic attacks;
- increased sensitivity to stress;
- fixation on a traumatic situation;
- sensitivity to changes in temperature, bright light, sharp or loud sounds.
- pain: head, heart, abdominal;
- increased fatigue, low working capacity;
- dizziness and pressure drop;
- impaired appetite;
- sleep disorders
- sweating, palpitations, fluctuations in pressure, disruption of the digestive tract;
- decreased potency and libido.
Neurosis - Diagnosis
Diagnosis of neuroses is carried out on the basis of a survey and instrumental examination of the patient. For the elimination of somatic diseases, an objective examination is extremely important, since some diseases of the body can provoke changes in the psychological and psycho-emotional behavior of a person.
Neurosis - Types of disease
Most authors distinguish 3 classical types of neuroses:
- obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Some authors, in the case of childhood neuroses, add to the three classical types of neurotic fear. Some authors (LB Gakkel, SN Davidenkov, SN Dotsenko, B. I Pervomaisky), referring to the teaching of IP Pavlov, consider the third basic form psychasthenia, and not the neurosis of obsessive states.
According to the leading manifestations, neuroses are sometimes divided into asthenic, phobic, obsessive, depressive, hypochondriac syndromes, as well as sleep disorders, vegetative-visceral disorders, sexual disorders, sensitivity disorders, eating disorders, motor disorders, sensitivity disorders, etc.
Neurosis - The patient's actions
After the diagnosis the patient can be sent to doctors of different specialties: therapists, neurologists, gastroenterologists, cardiologists, etc. Although pathology is more relevant to the competence of neurologists and psychiatrists.
Treatment of neurosis
In the treatment of neuroses, phytotherapy, psychotherapy, restorative drugs, psychotropic and sedative drugs (adaptol and others) are used. A good effect is provided by acupuncture, massages. A timely call to the doctor will help prevent the process from becoming chronous.
Complications of a neurosis
Neuroses do not lead to disability, but often disrupt the quality of life of the patient and his loved ones. In the absence of treatment, the chronic course of neurosis can lead to neurotic personality development.
Neurosis - Prevention
Preventive measures can include social and psycho-hygienic measures, the purpose of which is to relieve emotional tension. To this end, different methods are used, but in the first place is rest and correction of the rhythm of life.