Macula, or a patch on the skin: What's it, causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, prevention


Macula on the skin: What's it?

Before we look at the macula on the skin in more detail, let's figure it out, what is this condition. Macula on the skin – it is a spot or spots on the skin, that are different from the rest of the skin around them. They can be of different sizes., shapes and colors, and often cause anxiety in patients. Maculae can result from a variety of conditions., and it is important to understand the cause of the appearance of the macula, to ensure proper treatment and eliminate possible complications.

Causes of spots (all right) skin

There are many reasons for the appearance of a macula on the skin., including:

  1. pigmentation changes: Maculae on the skin can form due to uneven distribution of melanin pigment.. It may be due to genetic factors, solar radiation or skin exposure to various chemicals.
  2. Infectious diseases: Some infectious diseases, such as deprive, fungal infections or viral diseases, can cause macules on the skin.
  3. Allergic reactions: Allergic reactions to food, medicines, cosmetics or other substances can cause pimples to appear on the skin.
  4. Autoimmune diseases: Some autoimmune diseases, such as lupus erythematosus or psoriasis, can lead to the formation of macules on the skin.
  5. Neurodermatitis: This chronic pruritic dermatitis can cause macules and other skin symptoms..

Skin macula symptoms

Maculae on the skin can appear in a variety of ways depending on their cause.. But, the most common symptom is a change in the color and texture of the skin around the macula. Maculae may be flat or raised above skin level, uniform or uneven in color.

Other possible symptoms may include itching, peeling, swelling or even pain in the macula area. Although most maculae are not dangerous to health, some causes of macules may be associated with serious medical conditions, therefore it is important to see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

When to see a doctor

In most cases, the macula on the skin does not pose a health threat and disappears on its own over time.. But, the following situations require medical attention:

  • If the macula becomes painful, itchy or uncomfortable;
  • If the macula does not disappear within a few weeks or continues to spread;
  • If new symptoms appear, such as rashes, ulcers or leakage of fluid from the macula;
  • if you have a history of allergic reactions or other related conditions, which may be associated with the appearance of macules on the skin.

Questions, which the doctor may ask

The doctor may ask you some questions, to get a better idea of ​​your condition and the causes of macula on the skin. Some of these questions may include:

  1. 1. When did you first notice the macula on the skin?
  2. Has the size changed?, the shape or color of the macula over time?
  3. Do you feel itchy, pain or other discomfort in the macula?
  4. You have had allergic reactions in the past?
  5. Have you taken any new medications or used any new cosmetics in the last few weeks?

Answering these questions will help your doctor better understand your condition and determine the most appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan..

Diagnosis of the macula on the skin

Diagnosis of the macula on the skin begins with a general examination and the collection of the patient's medical history.. The doctor may pay attention to the appearance of the macula, as well as examine the rest of the skin and other parts of the body. More testing may be needed to more accurately determine the cause of the macula, such as:

  1. Skin tests: These tests can help determine, whether there is a reaction to contact with certain substances or allergens.
  2. Biopsy: In some cases, it may be necessary to take a skin sample for a more detailed analysis and determine the cause of the macula..
  3. Blood test: Tests may be helpful in identifying infections or other genuine causes of macula.
  4. Examination by the physician of other organs: If maculae on the skin are accompanied by other symptoms, your doctor may recommend examining other organs to look for related conditions.

Macula treatment on the skin

Treatment for macula on the skin depends on the cause, underlying its emergence. Your doctor may recommend the following treatment approaches:

  1. Medication: In cases, associated with infection or autoimmune disease, in most cases, a doctor can prescribe medication to address the cause of the macula on the skin. This may include antifungals, antivirals, antiallergic medicines or medicines, designed to reduce inflammation.
  2. Topical treatment: In cases, associated with pigmentation changes or local allergic reactions, the doctor may recommend the use of topical medications, such as creams or ointments, to relieve symptoms and improve the appearance of the skin.
  3. Lifestyle changes: In some cases, the cause of the macula on the skin may be solar radiation or contact with irritants.. The doctor may recommend lifestyle changes, to reduce the risk of reappearance of the macula. This may include the use of sunscreen., avoiding contact with potentially irritating substances or changing diet.
  4. Laser Therapy Procedures: In some cases, laser therapy may be recommended to remove or reduce the macula on the skin.. It may be especially effective for pigmentation changes or vascular problems..

Skin blemish treatment at home

In addition to treatment, prescribed by a doctor, there are also some measures, that can be taken at home, to reduce symptoms and speed up recovery. Here are some tips:

  1. Follow antifungal or antiviral therapy: If your doctor has prescribed drugs for you, take them exactly as recommended.
  2. Avoid irritants: If you know, that you have an allergic reaction to certain substances, try to avoid their contact.
  3. Use sunscreen: Protect your skin from the sun with sunscreen and wear protective clothing.
  4. Maintain good skin hygiene: Wash and moisturize your skin regularly, to prevent peeling and irritation.

Prevention of macula on the skin

Despite, that it is not possible in all cases to prevent the appearance of a macula on the skin, there are some preventive measures, which can be accepted:

  1. Use sunscreen: Regular use of high SPF sunscreens will help protect your skin from sun damage., which is often the cause of pigmentation changes and sunburn.
  2. Avoid skin contact with allergens: If you have known allergies, try to avoid contact with allergens, causing your skin to react.
  3. Carry out skin hygiene procedures: Regular washing and moisturizing of the skin will help keep it healthy and reduce the risk of developing various skin conditions..
  4. Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition, moderate physical activity and avoid bad habits, such as smoking, promote overall skin health.

I hope so, this information is helpful in understanding the macula on the skin. If you are experiencing this condition, it is recommended to consult a doctor, to receive an accurate diagnosis and an individual treatment plan.

Used sources and literature

Dinulos JGH. Light-related diseases and disorders of pigmentation. In: Dinulos JGH, ed. Habif’s Clinical Dermatology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 19.

Gawkrodger DJ, Ardern-Jones MR. Terminology of skin lesions. In: Gawkrodger DJ, Ardern-Jones MR, eds. Dermatology: An Illustrated Colour Text. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 7.

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