White blood cells – Quantitative indicators of leukocytes

The number of leukocytes in the blood of healthy people is 4-9 * 109 (T) in 1 l.

About leukopenia shows white blood cell count less than 4*109 in 1 l, leukocytosis on - above 9*109 in 1 l. The analysis forms blood as a standard specified in the figures 6-8 r 1 l, and clinicians in the treatment of pathological changes often come from these figures.

According to some researchers, even 3,5 T in 1 l leukocytes to a number of individuals may be the norm. According to the literature, such people have increased immune resistance, and they are less likely to suffer, what, apparently, due to the need for the presence of immune reactions reserve leukocytes in tissues, where they are in the 50- 60 times more, than in the bloodstream.

Obviously, namely in healthy individuals with a low content of leukocytes in peripheral blood, respectively, increased their reserves in tissues. Some researchers point to a hereditary family character of this phenomenon, others attach importance to autonomic shifts (increase in parasympathetic effects entails leukopenia and lymphocytosis).


Leukocytosis - a reaction to the impact of the hematopoietic system exo- or endogenous factors. There are absolute and relative leukocytosis. An example is the absolute leukocytosis hyperplasia tumor due to this germ of hematopoiesis (bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes). It usually occurs with marked leukocytes and rejuvenation with a progressive increase in the number of abnormal cells white sprout in the peripheral blood.

Otnosytelnыy leukocytosis (mieloidnый and limfoidnый)

Otnosytelnыy leukocytosis (mieloidnый and limfoidnый) characterized by the appropriate reactive hyperplasia germ hematopoietic system with eviction in peripheral blood leukocytes of young. Such leukocytosis observed in many infectious, septicheskih, purulent inflammatory and toxic processes. This hyperplasia is temporary and usually disappears with the termination of the infectious agent.

Leukocytosis may occur under the influence of toxic substances, ionizing radiation (immediately after irradiation). Perhaps the development of leukocytosis in the decay of tissue (necrosis), eg in myocardial infarction. The high leukocytosis with a rejuvenation of the cellular composition of white blood cells is considered as leykemoydnuyu reaction. In reaction leykemoydnыh, similar in pattern of blood leukemia, reactive hyperplastic process in the hematopoietic system has no neoplastic nature.

Leukocytosis in newborns and pregnant women (5-6 months pregnant) It is mostly mixed - reactive and redistributive. There is also kroveraspredelitelny (neurohumoral) leukocytosis - shock, postoperative, leukocytosis with эpylepsyy, atonal, etc..


Leukopenia, As a leukocytosis, It may be functional and organic. The tendency to reduce the number of leukocytes observed in hypotonic states, reducing the overall tone, starvation (eg, stoykaya leukopenia in alymentarnoy dystrofyy). It also occurs anaphylactic and alimentary leukopenia. Leukopenia may be due to the inhibitory action of certain toxins in the maturation of white blood cells, and the eviction of the blood-forming organs, that there is often a number of infectious diseases - typhoid, brucelleze, Flu, peel, Rubella, infectious hepatitis, etc..

In some communicable diseases, which are characterized by leukocytosis, leukopenia may be indicative of the come inhibition of hematopoiesis, what, in turn, It is a criterion for reducing the reactivity of the organism.

Leukopenia may occur as a result of blood (leukocytes) blood-forming organs and drugs.

Leukopenia organic refers leukopenia, resulting from aplasia of the bone marrow and replacing it by adipose tissue.


In most cases, leukocytosis associated with increased numbers of neutrophils in 1 liters of blood. Slight neutrophilia and leukocytosis with the expressed leukogram left shift indicates generally a mild course of infectious or inflammatory purulent- tion process, often having limited.

Significant neutrocytosis with hyperleukocytosis with a sharp shift to the left nuclear (to metamyelocytes and myelocytic) usually observed in the case of severe infection (Sepsis, peritonitis) at a sufficiently high level of total body resistance.

Marked with a small leukocytosis neutrophilia evidence of severe course of infection with the weakened body resistance. Significant neutrocytosis when leukopenia - an indicator of a serious infection, and reduced immune resistance of the organism.

The most important criterion, determining the severity of the infection and disease prognosis, is the degree of neutrophilic left shift, which can be leukemoid, regenerativnыm and regenerative-degenerativnыm.

At leykemoydnom Shift says a small percentage of myelocytes, metamyelocytes, and sometimes promyelocytic. Regenerative shift It is characterized by a high content of stab neutrophils and metamyelocytes. At degenerativnom sdvige, often combined with regenerative (to metamyelotsytov), there was a sharp degenerative changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes.

At leukogram shift to the right mature forms predominant segments 5-6. The shift to the right is found in 20 % healthy. When infectious diseases, limited inflammatory appearance of the shift to the right leukogram usually indicates a favorable course of the disease.


Neutropenia, usually, is a sign of depression of bone marrow function. It can be observed in typhoid fever, leishmaniasis, intoxication from drugs, agranulocytosis.

Persistent neutropenia It refers to an organic lesion of bone marrow (aplaziyu).


Eozinofiliya uvyelichyeniye kolichyestva eozinofilinykh granulotsitov vyshye 5-6 %. Hypereosinophilic characterized by the presence in the blood of 20-30 % and more eosinophilic granulocytes. Eosinophilia is considered as a manifestation of the protective functions of the body. Develops it in various allergic diseases and syndromes (asthma, serum sickness, hay fever, swollen Kvinke, hives and others.). Occurrence of eosinophilia is due to the individual reaction to any kind of infection (pneumococcal, staphylococcal, tuberkuleznuyu), and sometimes on the autoantigen.

Various helminthiases, Hodgkin's disease and rheumatism also occur with massivnoi eozinofiliyei. Lyekarstvyennaya eozinofiliya It can be observed in the treatment of certain antibiotics. Distinguish and tissue, local, eozinofiliyu, in which can not be marked increase in the number of eosinophilic granulocytes in the circulating blood. It is observed in the lungs with eosinophilic infiltrates, in bronchial mucosa in bronchial asthma, Kiska in at membranoznom cars and amoebiasis, eosinophilic granuloma, etc.. d. Its appearance in these diseases indicates a deterioration, exacerbation or relapse process.

When prognosis, usually not accompanied by eosinophilia, the number of eosinophils in the blood should be evaluated in conjunction with clinical data and other indicators haemograms. So, rise neutrophilia with a shift to the left leukogram and reducing the number of eosinophilic granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood usually corresponds to the progression of the pathological process and deterioration of the patient. And the appearance of eosinophilia with decreasing neutrophilia can be seen as a favorable symptom, indicating the beginning of recovery.

Reducing the number of eosinophilic granulocytes along with leukopenia or low neutrophil diseases, usually occurring with marked neutrophilia, It considered a sign of decrease in the body's immune resistance.


Lymphocytosis can be observed in many diseases (leukemia, radiation sickness, infectious diseases) and even in healthy people (to 50%). Distinguish relative and absolute lymphocytosis. The correct interpretation of lymphocytosis is only possible based on clinical manifestations and blood count.


In most cases lymphopenia is not an independent hematologic symptom, since it is the result of neutrophilia.

Absolute lymphopenia (combined with absolute neutropenia) can develop under the influence of ionizing radiation on the body, drugs, etc..


Monocytosis regarded as an indicator of the development of protective processes in the body, but only if the increase in the absolute number of monocytes (but not at the expense of neutropenia). It is observed in inflammatory diseases of bacterial origin (tuberculosis, brucelleze, sifilise, Chronic sepsis, subacute bacterial endocarditis) and diseases, caused by rickettsia and protozoa (malaria, sypnoj fever), as well as in tumors, Sarcoidosis, diffuse connective tissue diseases (kollagenozah).

The absolute number of monocytes increases in the blood of patients with infectious mononucleosis. When agranulocytosis absolute monocytosis regarded as prognostically favorable sign, indicating the beginning of recovery.

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