What is gastritis?
Gastritis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach. This is one of the most frequent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. According to some data, more 80% all people suffers gastritis, and among the elderly chronic gastritis occurs almost 90% cases.
Poorly digested food for gastritis, that generally leads to a decline in the force. Like most diseases, happens to the acute and chronic gastritis. Besides, This disease can take place against the backdrop of increased or decreased acidity. For each of these forms of gastritis characterized by its symptoms.
Gastritis: causes and factors
Among the direct causes and factors in the development of gastritis following:
- The bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Noteworthy, that for a long time about this bacterium, scientists did not know. Only in 2005 year for the opening of this infectious agent scientists awarded Nobel Prize. Before that causes gastritis and acidity felt nervous stress. It is now known, that the major cause of gastritis and ulcers stomach and duodenal ulcers (more 85% cases) is the stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori infection. This Microbe survives in an aggressive acidic stomach Wednesday, there, where other bacteria do not survive. Truth, Currently, scientists puzzled by another question-why some people with Helicobacter pylori causes significant damage to the, There is no other?
- Eating disorders. Known, that the unbalanced diet can cause inflammation of the stomach mucosa. In particular, malnutrition and obesity is a major factor in the development of inflammatory diseases of the stomach. To avoid these phenomena should diversify plant food, rich in vitamins and fiber. You should minimize your intake of oily, spicy and marinated food.
- Alcohol abuse. Note, that the ethyl alcohol in small quantities is an important member of the biochemical processes in the body. However, when hitting large servings of alcohol in the body disturbed acid-base balance. Furthermore, overindulgence in alcoholic beverages provides povrejdatee effect on other organs of the digestive system, in particular, the liver and pancreas.
- Some medications. Frequent intake of some medicines, to prevent blood clotting, and anti-inflammatory drugs could lead to the defeat of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastritis often develops against the background of the prolonged admission of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids.
- Worms. Some researchers have noted the relationship with some gastritis glistnymi invazijami.
The main internal reasons, resulting in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (including gastritis) relate:
- Congenital predisposition to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Duodenal reflux-throwing away the bile from the duodenum into the stomach.
- Autoimmune processes when immune cells begin to attack the body's own cells.
- Hormonal background.
Types of disease: classification of gastritis
Depending on the cause of chronic gastritis is divided into forms:
- Autoimmune (тип A) — fundal'nyj gastritis; inflammation caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. Usually, accompanied by the development of pernicious anemia;
- Bacterial (тип B) — antral'nyj gastritis, associated with obsemeneniem mucous membrane stomach bacteria Helicobacter pylori;
- Chemical (Type C) -develops due to cast lizolecitina in the bile and stomach with reflux or duodenogastral'nom as a result of the admission of certain classes of drugs.
There are also mixed forms — AB, AC and additional types of chronic gastritis (alcoholic gastritis, medicinal gastritis etc.).
Depending on the localization of pathological process distinguish:
- gastritis antrum of stomach Division;
- gastritis gastric body;
- gastritis fundal'nogo Division stomach;
Symptoms of gastritis: as manifested disease
Acute gastritis is accompanied by a general weakness, toshnotoy, repeated vomiting. Characterized by abdominal cramping, discomfort in the upper abdomen. In cases of infectious gastritis may cause fever. General condition deteriorates, weakness occurs, dizziness. Language is a dirty yellow or greyish-white bloom. An important symptom of gastritis is indigestion, sometimes nausea and vomiting.
With regard to chronic gastritis, then define it on the symptomatology is hard enough. Long time chronic gastritis manifested minor violations of the Chair, fatigue, flatulence and other violations, which are often attributed to malnutrition or overwork. Various symptoms differ for gastritis with high and low acidity.
Symptoms of gastritis with hyperacidity:
- Prolonged pain in the solar plexus. Usually, such pain disappear after eating.
- Frequent diarrhea (ponosy).
- Heartburn, which occurs after consuming acidic foods.
- Frequent belching.
Symptoms of gastritis with low acidity:
- An unpleasant sensation in the oral cavity.
- After the meal, there is a feeling of heaviness.
- Burp with the smell addle eggs.
- Violation of the Chair (irregular bowel movement).
- Nausea in the morning.
Actions of the patient with gastritis
In the case of gastritis symptoms should consult a gastroenterologist. In acute gastritis should adhere to diets. Contraindicated coffee, chocolate, carbonated drinks, canned food, alcohol, concentrates or surrogates of any products, spices, spices, fastud, dishes, provoking fermentation (cream, milk, grapes, black bread), smoked, oily, fried foods, products from fancy pastry. When the food must be diverse, rich in proteins and vitamins. We recommend fractional food intake, on 5-6 times a day.
Diagnosis of gastritis
Hold fibrogastroduodenoskopiju with biopsy mucosa, urease breathing test, define and stimulate antibodies in the blood, Antigen is bacteria in the feces, spend enteric pH-Metry.
Treatment of gastritis
Acute gastritis is shown poisoning gastric lavage. After this we recommend fractional drinking saline or carbonated mineral water to replenish the loss of electrolytes and fluids. You need to stick to your diet (rare soups, crackers, pureed porridge, Kissel). Of medicines in acute gastritis, intestinal chelators are assigned, antispasmodics (drotaverin and etc). In severe vomiting is allowed the use of antiemetics.
Treatment of chronic gastritis involves adherence to diets. In case of increased secretion of antisecretory drugs prescribed (proton pump inhibitors, H2-retseptorov blockers), antacids, prokinetiki. When reduced secretion appoint enzyme preparations (mezim), antispasmodics. If the patient identified Helicobacter pylori, It is necessary to carry out its eradication (the destruction of). To this end, the prescribed therapy of two antibiotics and Proton pump inhibitor.
Complications of gastritis
For gastritis may develop the following complications:
- Internal bleeding: characteristically more erosive gastritis.
- Peritonitis, sepsis: typical for purulent gastritis flegmoznogo.
- Stomach cancer: gastritis is a risk factor for the occurrence of cancer of the stomach.
- Anemia (anemia), deficiency of vitamin B12: develops due to defective intake of vitamin B12 in the stomach. For the same reason, can develop iron deficiency anemia.
- Pancreatitis: gastritis can provide an impetus for the development of inflammation of the pancreas, especially if there are additional risk factors-alcohol, medication, smoking.
- Dehydration: When prolonged vomiting.
- Anorexia: loss of appetite and metabolism can lead to a significant depletion of the body.
- Stomach ulcer: in the absence of or inadequate treatment possible progression of gastric wall lesion.
Power mode should be respected, quit smoking and alcohol, avoid stress, prolonged use of gastrotoksicheskih drugs.