Swelling of the brain - a pathological condition, which is characterized by an increase in brain volume. This occurs due to excess fluid accumulation in brain cells and the intercellular space. The main cause of this state - increase cerebrovascular permeability, and breach the blood brain barrier.
Brain edema is not considered to be independent disease. This condition develops secondary to other diseases and disorders.
Cerebral edema - Causes
There are several reasons, which may develop cerebral edema. These reasons include:
- violation of blood circulation in the brain (stroke development);
- traumatic brain injury;
- serious infectious disease, eg, Tick-borne Encephalitis, influenza and other;
- brain tumor;
- surgery on the brain.
Symptoms of cerebral edema
The main symptom of cerebral edema is arching headache, which is almost equally pronounced in all parts of the head. The patient also noted nausea, vomiting and blurred vision.
From general symptoms sleepiness and weakness can occur. It may be disturbed consciousness, up to complete its loss.
Sometimes swelling of the brain marked convulsions and respiratory failure.
Swelling of the brain - Diagnosis
In the first phase collects medical history and analysis of the complaints of the patient.
Neurological examination, the doctor evaluates the patient's level of consciousness, as well as searches of neurological disorders.
When cerebral edema swells well and the optic disc, so the diagnosis also includes a fundus examination.
Measurement of intracranial pressure is carried out by means of special sensors, which is set in the cavity of the brain ventricles or in the fabric.
For diagnostic purposes, can also be carried out a lumbar puncture, CT and magnetic resonance imaging.
Swelling of the brain - Types of diseases
There are four main types of cerebral edema: tsitotoksicheskiy, vasogenic, interstitial and osmotic.
Cytotoxic brain edema develops due to swelling of neurons and glia. Usually, It has been developing for a few minutes after brain injury (eg, after hypoxia).
Vasogenic brain edema occurs due to excessive permeability of cerebral blood vessels. After vessel wall are located in the brain proteins, and with them, and water molecules, and whereby edema.
Interstitial occurs in hydrocephalus, when obstructed outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.
Swelling of the brain - the patient's Actions
When the cerebral edema symptoms should consult a doctor, neurologist.
brain edema treatment
brain edema may be conservative treatment and surgical. Non-surgical methods of treatment will include dehydration, and also the use of anticonvulsants (the appearance of seizures). The dehydration reduces the use of large doses of drugs, outputting fluid from the body. hormonal drugs are used to improve the blood-brain barrier functions.
Surgical treatment consists of making decompressive craniotomy - opening the cranial cavity with subsequent formation of skull bone defects. Thus, Pressure within the cranium is drastically reduced.
In addition to specific therapies brain edema, also treats the underlying disease, which led to this state.
Swelling of the brain - Complications
brain edema can lead to complications following:
- Dislocation syndrome - impairment of the brain within the cranial cavity. This morbid state leads to significant neurological disorders, such as a complete lack of consciousness, respiratory failure, a sharp drop in blood pressure and other.
- Probability of death.
Prevention of cerebral edema
As cerebral edema develops in the background of other diseases, that as such the prevention of this condition does not exist.
The main preventive measure is reduced to prevent the pathological conditions, against the background that may develop cerebral edema.