Neurotic disorders (neuroses) - a common name for a group of reversible psychological disorders that are prone to prolonged course, do not lead to noticeable behavioral disorders, but significantly affect the quality of life.
Neurotic disorder does not break all the mechanisms of a person's mental activity, but only certain areas of it.
Neurotic disorder - Causes
Neurotic disorders are usually caused by a significant and prolonged exposure to stimuli, which lead to permanent nerve tension. The most common causes of neuroses are events that threaten the future of the person, cause uncertainty of the situation or require alternative solutions.
Very rarely the cause of neuroses are sudden traumatic events (death of a loved one, an accident).
Symptoms of a neurotic disorder
The most vivid symptoms of neurotic disorders:
- Panic attacks
- Agoraphobia (fear of open space and some other similar phobias)
- Hypochondriac phobias (obsessive, unreasonable fear is hard to get sick)
- Obsessive thoughts (constant repetition of undesirable, burdensome thoughts)
- Hysterical reactions
Neurotic disorder - Diagnosis
Diagnosis of neuroses is often complicated by a lack of objective manifestations, according to which the doctor can accurately determine the presence of the disease. When collecting anamnesis, the doctor takes into account the patient's complaints, assesses the adequacy of the physical and mental state.
During the survey, organic causes of neurotic symptoms (head trauma, brain tumor) are completely excluded. Neurosis can be burdened by the presence of a physical disease.
If the psychologist conducts the diagnosis of the neurotic disorder, then the patient is interviewed using an oral questionnaire and standardized methods to assess the patient's condition (BVNK-300, 16-factor questionnaire of Cattell, extroversion-introvert scale, Aaron Beck depression scale).
Neurotic disorder - Classification
There are the following types of neurotic disorders:
- Anxious neurotic disorder. One of the most common forms of neuroses. The main psychological manifestations of anxiety-phobic disorders are panic attacks.
- Hysterical disorders. This form is prone to infantile personalities with a high level of suggestibility, lack of independence of judgments, emotional immaturity, impressionability, mild excitability.
- Neurasthenia. The main complaints: unbearable fatigue, loss of strength, reduced vitality, weakness, intolerance of previously habitual loads. Patients are very sensitive to external stimuli.
- Neurotic sleep disorder. More often there is a disturbance of falling asleep, which provokes aggravation of neuroses.
Disorders of awakening from sleep are also encountered. They are manifested by the fact that after awakening a person can not distinguish a dream from reality for a while.
Neurotic disorder - Patient's actions
When symptoms appear that are characteristic of neuroses, the patient should consult a psychologist or doctors with a psychotherapist, a psychiatrist.
Treatment of neurotic disorder
In the treatment of neuroses, methods of psychotherapy and medication are used. Treatment of neurotic disorders in children necessarily includes psychotherapeutic treatment of parents.
With severe excitement and the presence of intense symptoms, tranquilizers and neuroleptics are prescribed. Patients with severe depression or suicidal tendencies are shown taking antidepressants. Also homeopathic (tenotene), symptomatic and restorative means are used.
The process of recovery is facilitated by physiotherapy. It is recommended to carry out treatment in specialized institutions of sanatorium type.
Neurotic disorder - Complications
If neurotic disorders are not treated, they lead to the development of a person's personality according to the neurotic type. Painful symptoms will increase with time. One of the three pathological pathways is possible:
- A person turns into a hysterical personality, which is characterized by hypertrophied suspiciousness, emotional logic, violent theatrical emotions and reactions.
- Transformation into the obsessional personality. A person is excessively hypocritical, constantly fears for his life and health, his self-esteem is understated.
- Transformation into an explosive personality. A person does not tolerate objections to his address, is aggressive and always concentrates on negative emotions. At the same time, he becomes a hypochondriac.
All types of neurotic personalities are destructive.
Prophylaxis of a neurotic disorder
- Primary psycho-prophylaxis consists in preventing psychotraumatic influences at work and at home; includes proper education of the child and healthy relations in the family; prevention of family conflicts.
- Secondary psycho prophylaxis (prevention of relapses) is based on changing the attitude of patients to psycho-traumatic situations; timely treatment; increased brightness in the room, restorative and vitamin therapy; diet therapy. The patient should ensure a sufficient sleep, timely treatment of concomitant diseases.