Neuropathy in psychiatry (neuropathia, Greek neuron nerve + pathos suffering, disease, synonyms: constitutional nervousness, endogenous nervousness, neuropathic constitution) is a congenital pathological state with sharply increased general, especially vegetative, excitability and neuropsychic exhaustion.
Neuropathy - Causes
Etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. In a number of cases, the hereditary factor plays a leading role in the onset of neuropathy. Organic damage to the brain during intrauterine development, for example, in toxicoses, infections, intoxications of pregnant women, and perinatal pathology (intracranial birth trauma, birth asphyxia, immunological conflicts) also have significance. Cases of neuropathy of hereditary-constitutional origin are attributed to true neuropathy, and exogenously-organic genesis - to organic neuropathy. The deficiencies of upbringing also contribute to fixing mental abnormalities.
Symptoms of Neuropathy
The symptomatology is most pronounced at the age of 3 years and is characterized by an increased sensitivity of the child to any external stimuli, general motor anxiety, frequent crying, disturbances in rhythm and depth of sleep, various digestive disorders, and reduced appetite, delayed chewing, difficult transition to dense food. In this case, there is often an increased tendency to allergic reactions, acute respiratory diseases; there are a number of mental abnormalities - fearfulness, fear of everything new, propensity to fear.
In preschool age, increased autonomic excitability is somewhat weakened, mental disorders become more noticeable: some children have increased affective excitability and irritability combined with exhaustion, others have a pronounced inhibition in an unaccustomed environment, fearfulness, a propensity for fear, and increased impressionability.
At school age, vegetative-vascular disorders begin to appear on the foreground: skin color changes, headaches, dizziness, may be fainting.
Neuropathy - Diagnosis
The diagnosis is established on the basis of clinical, picture and anamnesis data. To differentiate treatment and rehabilitation, it is important to distinguish between true and organic neuropathy. Unlike true neuropathy, manifestations of organic neuropathy can already be detected in a newborn; note the slowed pace of mental development, manifestations of psycho-organic syndrome, the presence of neurological microsymptomatics.
Neuropathy - Types of disease
In accordance with the results of studies by domestic and foreign authors, the following three clinical and etiological types of neuropathy syndromes are distinguished:
- syndrome of true (genetically determined) neuropathy
- syndrome of organic neuropathy
- syndrome of neuropathy of mixed origin
Neuropathy - Patient's actions
Parents should be able to recognize early signs of neuropsychiatric disorders, contact the doctor in a timely manner and follow his recommendations.
Treatment of Neuropathy
Prescribe general strengthening, sedative drugs, mild sedatives, tranquilizers in combination with physiotherapy procedures, it is also necessary pedagogical effect. With organic Neuropathy, it is also advisable to carry out a resorption, dehydration therapy, reception of nootropics (nootropil).
Neuropathy - Complications
The prognosis for life is favorable.
Prophylaxis of neuropathy
Prevention includes measures to ensure the normal course of pregnancy and childbirth, it is also important to conduct general recreational activities (gymnastics, walks, compliance with the regime); correct education of a child without excessive custody.