Optic neuritis-what is this disease, the cause of the? Description, symptoms and prevention of diseases of the optic neuritis

The human visual nerve

Optic neuritis is characterized by rapid (for hours – several days) and often reversible loss of vision in one or both eyes.

Frequency. Sick more often women aged 18 to 50 years.

Classification. Depending on the localization of the foci along the optic nerve secrete: optic neuritis (process is localized behind the eyeball in the orbit) and intrakranialьnый.

Optic neuritis - Causes

Along with unknown (idiopaticheskimi) options optic neuritis occur in multiple sclerosis, viral infections (kor, enable vetryanaya, shingles, эpidemicheskiy mumps, Mononucleosis), Other infections of the nervous system (syphilis, tuberculosis, kryptokokkoz, sarkoidoz), including fungal.

Симптомы неврита зрительного нерва

Within a few hours or days developed blurred vision in one or both eyes, reduced perception of light intensity and color vision, the ability of central and paracentral scotoma. There is pain in the eye sockets and brow ridges, aggravated by eye movement. Weakened by the direct reaction of the pupil to light, and friendly photoreaction widens slightly (zracok Markusa type).

Optic neuritis - Diagnosis

Diagnosis of typical cases is not difficult, somewhat more difficult to define easily flowing neuritis. In these cases, there is a need to differentiate them from psevdonevrita or stagnant disc.

neuritis diagnosis confirmed sporadic small hemorrhage or exudative lesions in the disk surrounding tissue or retinal. It gives the most accurate picture of the fundus fluorescein angiography. The fall in visual acuity and central scotoma with small changes drive clearly indicate which developed optic neuritis. Matters and monitor the course of the disease.

Optic neuritis - Types of diseases

Distinguish 2 basic form of the disease:

  1. mononeuritis, at which only one is affected peripheral nerve (facial, ophthalmic, radiation, etc.. d.);
  2. polyneuritis, characterized by inflammation of multiple nerves at the same time.

Depending on the variety of nerve, involved in the pathological process, isolated neuritis of the facial, hearing, elbow, glossopharyngeal, oculomotor, small bertsovoho, sedalishtnogo, femoral, phrenic and other nerves.

Optic neuritis - Patient action

We recommend consulting an ophthalmologist, Neuropathy, neurologist.

Лечение неврита зрительного нерва

Antibiotics, antivirals, improving microcirculation (a nicotinic acid, pentoxifylline), Topical administration of hydrocortisone, prednisolone 1 mg / kg / day. during 2 Sun., then reduced for 1-2 Sun. Often spend pulsterapiyu methylprednisolone: 30 mg / kg intravenously over 30 every min 6 no (Total 12 doses), followed by oral prednisone at reception 1-2 Sun. Complex therapy with vitamin B (milgamma etc.).

Course and prognosis. Visual function usually begins to recover through 2-3 Sun. from the debut of the disease, and a few months later he returns to normal.

Optic neuritis - Complications

In 75% women and 34% men with optic neuritis history in the long term developing multiple sclerosis.

Prevention of optic neuritis

Prevention of optic neuritis, which would significantly prevent the development of this disease, there is currently no. However, it is recommended to follow the rules:

  • timely treat pockets of chronic infection in the upper respiratory tract;
  • timely consult a neurologist with the appearance of any complaints;
  • immediately contact an ophthalmologist at the slightest decrease in visual acuity, or the appearance of other ocular symptoms;
  • avoid traumatic injury of the eyeball, etc..