Neuritis - what is this disease, the causes of it? Description, symptoms and prevention of neuritis

Neuritis - inflammation of the trunk of the peripheral nerve, manifested by motor disorders and sensitivity disorders in the zone of innervation of this nerve.

Neuritis can be local, when only one nerve suffers, or multiple (polyneuritis), when several nerves are damaged.

Neuritis - Causes

Local neuritis can occur due to local infections, tumors, trauma or arthritis.

Multiple neuritis causes bacterial or viral infections, intoxication of the body. Promotes the development of polyneuritis, hypothermia, vitamin deficiency, vascular and other disorders.

Neuritis can develop as a result of compression of nerves, which can occur due to narrowing of fibrous and bony canals. In such cases, they speak of a tunnel syndrome. In addition, the compression of the nerves is possible herniated intervertebral disc, osteophytes with osteochondrosis.

Symptoms of neuritis

The clinical picture is determined by the functions of the nerve, the area of ​​innervation, the degree of defeat. The most part of the peripheral nerves consists of fibers of various types: motor, vegetative and sensitive. The defeat of fibers of each type causes different symptoms:

  • Sensitivity disorders - paresthesia (sensation of "crawling cunt", tingling), numbness, decrease or loss of sensitivity in the innervation zone;
  • impaired motor activity - partial (paresis) or complete (paralysis) reduction in force in the innervated muscles, prolapse or decrease of tendon reflexes, development of muscle atrophy;
  • trophic and vegetative disorders - cyanosis of the skin, puffiness, local hair loss, depigmentation, dryness and thinning of the skin, sweating, brittle nails, the development of trophic ulcers, etc.

In the beginning of the disease, pain and numbness appear. Some neuritis may have specific symptoms.

Neuritis - Diagnosis

Diagnosis of neuritis is based on the symptoms of the disease. To clarify the diagnosis, electroneurography is performed.

Neuritis - Types of the disease

  • Axial neuritis is a lesion of axial nerve cylinders.
  • Vegetative neuritis is the defeat of peripheral fibers of the autonomic nervous system, manifested by trophic disorders (changes in color, skin temperature, etc.).
  • Vibration vegetative neuritis is a professional neuritis caused by the constant exposure to vibration. It is observed mainly in the feet and hands.
  • Ascending neuritis occurs when a peripheral part of the arms or legs is injured. It is manifested by attacks of pain (paroxysms of causalgia) and vasomotor (vascular) disorders, spreading gradually from the periphery to the center.
  • Hypertrophic neuritis Dejerine-Sotta is a hereditary disease that tends to progress. The hypertrophy of the sheath of nerve fibers, which compresses the conducting part of the nerve, is typical, as a result of which the nerve gradually degenerates and loses its function. The disease manifests itself slowly increasing peripheral paresis, muscle atrophy, a violation of the sensitivity of the polyneuric type.
  • Neuritis Gombo - the disintegration of the myelin sheath of the nerve in the restricted areas of the nerve fiber. The inner part of the nerve (axial cylinder) is retained.
  • Interstitial neuritis is a lesion of connective nerve tissue. Often develops due to an autoimmune process.
  • Retrobulbar neuritis (optic neuritis) - pathology of the optic nerve.
  • False optic neuritis is an anomaly of the optic nerve development, reminiscent of its inflammation in the clinical picture. At the same time, nerve atrophy does not develop, the visual function does not suffer.
  • Infectious neuritis - develops as a complication of infectious diseases.
  • Cochlear neuritis is a lesion of the cochlear part of the auditory nerve, which leads to the development of noise in the ear, a decrease in hearing by the type of violation of sound perception.
  • Parenchymal neuritis - the defeat of axial cylinders (myelin sheath, nerve fiber). Connective tissue tissues of the nerve are later involved.
  • Professional neuritis - develops due to exposure to occupational hazards (intoxication with heavy metals, other toxic substances).
  • Retrobulbar neuritis - inflammation of the optic nerve outside the eyeball:
  • Axial retrobulbar neuritis is localized in the maculopapillary fasciculus of the optic nerve;
  • Interstitial retrobulbar neuritis begins in the membranes of the optic nerve and extends deep into the nerve trunk;
  • Orbital retrobulbar neuritis;
  • Peripheral retrobulbar neuritis;
  • Transversal retrobulbar neuritis.
  • Neuritis Rossolimo - one of the forms of hypertrophic neuritis Dezherin-Sotta, which occurs in childhood, characterized by a recurrent course.
  • Traumatic neuritis - is caused by a trauma to the nerve. Nervis is a serious disease. Treatment should be started immediately, as the first symptoms appeared, to prevent the development of complications (paresis, paralysis).

Treatment of neuritis

Treatment begins with the establishment and elimination of the cause of neuritis.

In case of infectious origin, the disease is prescribed antiviral or antibacterial drugs (depending on the pathogen detected).

In case of toxic-borne toxicity, it is necessary to remove toxic substances from the body.

Traumatic neuritis may require surgical intervention.

With neuritis, vitamin therapy is indicated (vitamins of group B) - milgamma, etc.

Effective massage of the muscles that innervates the affected nerve, as well as physiotherapy procedures.

Complications

  • motor disorders (up to paralysis);
  • impaired sensitivity;
  • amyotrophy.

Prophylaxis of neuritis

Rational nutrition, timely treatment of any diseases, hardening, vaccination against infectious diseases will help to avoid the development of neuritis.