Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD; Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy)
What is Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
Mыshechnaya dystrophy Dyushenna (Codes) It is a genetic disease. The main sign of DMD is muscle weakness, which worsens over time. At the age of about five years, the leg muscles, arms and trunk begin to weaken. Later weakened cardiac and respiratory muscles.
Causes Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
DMD is caused by a genetic mutation. The disease is caused by mutations of the gene, responsible for protein production, called dystrophin. This protein is required for the formation of muscle tissue.
Risk factors for Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Factors, which increase the likelihood of a child DMD:
- Family history of the disease;
- Paul: male.
The symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Symptoms may include a DMD:
- The child begins to walk quite late;
- The increased size of the calf muscles;
- Frequent falling;
- Clumsiness when walking;
- Difficulty climbing stairs;
- Problems with balance;
- Progressive muscle weakness.
Diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history of the child, and perform a physical examination. He may also ask about family history of neuromuscular disease. Emphasis will be given to the child's muscles. The doctor will look for signs of weakness, probably, refer the child for further examination to the expert.
It can be assigned to survey the child fluids and tissues, to which may be assigned:
- Biopsy mыshts;
- Blood tests.
To study the functioning of nerves and muscles of a child may be assigned electromyography (DOH).
Treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Consult your doctor about the best method of treatment of the child. Disease worsens over time. Child, perhaps, It requires a combination of different treatments, when the disease begins to progress. Methods for reducing the symptoms of DMD include the following::
Therapy plays a large role in treating DMD. The child will work with a therapist, to try to maintain muscle strength.
The disease causes contractures – muscle contraction, which hampers movement. The therapy will focus on the prevention of contractures, and exercise to maintain range of motion.
Patients with DMD often found scoliosis. Exercise can help keep your back as straight as possible.
Assistive devices for the treatment of DMD
A special device, to keep the legs straight and prevent contractures. Walker and wheelchair may be needed later, when the leg muscles become too weak, and the patient can not walk.
Medication in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Your doctor may prescribe a steroid medication, eg, prednisolone. This can help to improve muscle strength and slow muscle weakening. But, Steroids can weaken bones. To keep bones healthy, the child must take vitamin D and calcium supplements. If your child has heart problems, They can be assigned to appropriate medication.
Respiratory therapy in DMD
As the disease progresses, muscle, breathing support, They may be loosened, and child, perhaps, required mechanical ventilation. Air is supplied through a mask, tube, and sometimes through an opening in the trachea, after tracheotomy.
Operation in DMD
Surgery is sometimes used to treat symptoms of DMD. In the event of severe contractures operation can be performed, to weaken the tendon. Scoliosis can sometimes interfere with the child's breathing. In this case, it may be scheduled for surgery on the spine.
Prevention of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
At the moment, there are no methods, allowing to prevent this progressive muscle disease.