Multiple myeloma – Mnozhestvennaya myeloma

Multiple Myeloma (Plasma-Cell Myeloma)

What is Multiple Myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is a rare form of bone marrow cancer. This occurs as a result of abnormal growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Blood Plasma cells produce antibodies. In cancer, the abnormal or malignant plasma cells multiply, producing large amounts of abnormal antibodies, that accumulate in blood and urine. When a tumor of plasma cells expands, it also destroys bone around. This leads to bone pain, kidney damage and weakening of the immune system.

Cancer occurs, when the cells of the organism (in this case, plasma cells) begin randomly divided. If cells keep dividing uncontrollably, when the body does not need new, excrescent (weight) of cloth, called a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant tumors, that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Benign tumors do not spread to other organs.

Causes of multiple myeloma

The cause of multiple myeloma is unknown.

Risk Factors for Multiple Myeloma

Factors, which increase the risk of multiple myeloma:

  • Age: 50 and older.

Symptoms of multiple myeloma

The symptoms of an early stage of multiple myeloma include:

  • Persistent bone pain, often heavy. Pain is the most common in back, often going out on a limb or fin;
  • Fatigue.

When the myeloma progresses, symptoms may include:

  • Severe fatigue;
  • Weakness;
  • Fractures;
  • Frequent infections;
  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Constipation;
  • Difficulty urinating;
  • Abnormal bleeding;
  • Headache;
  • Vision problems;
  • Confusion.

Diagnosis of multiple myeloma

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical examination.

The doctor may need pictures of bones. For their implementation apply:

  • Roentgen;
  • MRT;
  • CT scan;
  • Positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT).

Your doctor may order tests of fluids and tissues, for which the following tests:

  • Blood tests;
  • Urine;
  • Bone marrow aspiration or bone biopsy.

Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

Following the discovery of cancer appointed additional tests, to determine the extent of its spread. The treatment in some situations can slow the progression of multiple myeloma. Complete remission occurs rarely. Treatment is also important to control symptoms. It depends on the health and stage of cancer. Methods for the treatment of multiple myeloma include:

Chemotherapy in multiple myeloma

Chemotherapy – the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Preparations for the chemotherapy may be given in various forms: tablets, injection, the introduction of a catheter. The drugs enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, killing mostly cancer, and also some healthy cells.

Chemotherapeutic drugs are used in combination, as well as with other types of drugs, such as immunomodulators.


Immunomodulators impede survival, the reproduction of cancer cells, as well as the production of proteins, which cause the symptoms of myeloma. These medications are often given in combination with corticosteroids.


Corticosteroids can be administered in conjunction with other drugs, or put yourself. Corticosteroids help to heal some of the symptoms of chemotherapy, such as nausea and vomiting.

Proteasome inhibitor

Proteasome inhibitor used to treat multiple myeloma. Proteasome inhibitors – medicines, blocking the work of the proteasome, cell complexes, which destroy proteins. Cancer cells are very sensitive, they need the proteasome for its rapid growth. Due to the accumulation of extra protein, indestructible proteasomes, cancer cells eventually stop growing.


Bisphosphonates are appointed, to slow down the process of bone loss.

Biological Therapy

Biological therapy uses the body's immune system to fight cancer. Interferon is a Biological Agent, used to treat multiple myeloma. Interferon may be used in conjunction with chemotherapy to prolong remission, slowing the rate of growth of myeloma cancer cells.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses radiation emissions, to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. External radiation therapy is indicated for the relief of pain in the bones. However, this method is not effective in multiple myeloma.

The operation for the treatment of multiple myeloma

The operation is used, to remove the tumor focus, which causes pain or other symptoms, when radiation therapy has not give a positive effect. However, the operation does not fully cure multiple myeloma.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation involves the introduction of immature, healthy blood cells, to replace bone marrow cells, that were damaged cancer.


Plasmapheresis is performed replacing blood plasma. Plasma – the liquid part of blood, containing no cells. After, the plasma is removed from blood, the body is poured fresh plasma or substitutes. This procedure is done to remove the myeloma proteins from the blood.

Prevention of multiple myeloma

There are no methods for preventing multiple myeloma, as the cause of its occurrence is unknown.

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