Coronavirus COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2: what is this, causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, prevention

COVID-19 symptoms; Coronavirus novel 2019 – symptoms; 2019 Novel coronavirus – symptoms; SARS-Co-V2 – symptoms

COVID-19, or coronavirus disease 2019 year, is a respiratory disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The virus was first detected in Wuhan, China, December 2019 year, and has since spread around the world, causing a global pandemic. COVID-19 is highly contagious and can be spread through the air, when an infected person talks, coughing or sneezing.

Causes of COVID-19

COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is a member of the coronavirus family. The virus can spread through the air, when an infected person talks, coughing or sneezing. The virus can also be spread by touching a surface., infected with a virus, and then when you touch your face, although it is considered, that this is a less common mode of transmission.

Symptoms of COVID-19

Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild to severe and may take 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. Some patients may not show any symptoms at all., but can still transmit the virus to others.

COVID-19 symptoms can range from mild to severe. Symptoms may include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Myalgia
  • Headache
  • Loss of sense of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • stuffy or runny nose
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea

(Note: this is not a complete list of possible symptoms. To the extent that, how health experts learn more about this disease, other symptoms may be added.)

Some people may not have symptoms at all. Many have only some, but not all symptoms.

Symptoms may develop within 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. Most often, symptoms appear about 5 days after infection. However, you can spread the virus, even if you have no symptoms.

More severe symptoms, requiring immediate medical attention, include:

  • Labored breathing
  • Chest pain or pressure, which is preserved
  • Confusion
  • Inability to wake up
  • blue, gray or pale skin, lips, face or nails, depending on your skin tone.

Older people and people with certain existing medical conditions are at higher risk of developing severe illness and death.. Disease, increasing risk, include:

  • Cancer
  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  • Mukovystsydoz
  • imbecility
  • Diabetes (type 1 and type 2)
  • Down syndrome or other disorders
  • Heart disease and stroke
  • HIV
  • Kidney disease , lungs or liver
  • Mental health condition
  • Overweight and obesity (BMI 25 and higher)
  • Physical inactivity
  • Pregnancy
  • Organ or stem cell transplant
  • sickle cell anemia or thalassemia
  • Smoking (present or former)
  • Disorders, associated with the use of psychoactive substances
  • Tuberculosis
  • Weak immune system (immunocompromising)

When to contact a healthcare professional

If you are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for advice. You should also seek medical attention, if you have been in close contact with someone, who tested positive for COVID-19, or if you have recently traveled to an area with a high incidence of COVID-19.

If you have severe symptoms, such as difficulty breathing or chest pain, consult a physician immediately. Before going to a medical facility, call your health care provider or emergency services, so that they can prepare for your arrival and make recommendations about, what to do.

Questions, that your doctor may ask

When you see a healthcare professional about your symptoms, he may ask you a series of questions, to determine the best course of action. These questions may include:

  • What symptoms are you experiencing??
  • When did your symptoms start?
  • Have you been in close contact with anyone, who tested positive for COVID-19?
  • You have recently traveled to an area with a high incidence of COVID-19?
  • Do you have any comorbidities, such as asthma or diabetes?

Diagnosis of COVID-19

Diagnosis of COVID-19 is usually done with a COVID-19 test, which involves taking a swab from the nose or throat.

There are two types of tests for COVID-19: molecular test and antigen test.

Molecular test, also known as PCR test, detects the genetic material of the virus and is considered the most accurate.

The antigen test detects proteins on the surface of the virus and is less accurate, than a molecular test.

If you test positive for COVID-19, it is important to follow the instructions of your health care provider and public health officials. Probably, вам придется самоизолироваться, чтобы предотвратить распространение вируса среди других.

Лечение COVID-19

В настоящее время специфического лечения COVID-19 не существует, but supportive care may be given to relieve symptoms. This may include:

  • Recreation.
  • Taking over-the-counter painkillers, such as acetaminophen, to reduce fever and relieve pain.
  • Using a humidifier or taking a hot shower, to relieve sore throat and cough.
  • Monitor symptoms and seek medical attention if symptoms worsen, people with severe symptoms may require hospitalization. В больнице медицинские работники могут предоставить дополнительный кислород, вводить внутривенные жидкости и использовать механический вентилятор для облегчения дыхания.

Because COVID-19 is caused by a virus, antibiotics are not effective in treating the disease. However, some antivirals have been approved for emergency use in certain cases of COVID-19.. These drugs, such as remdesivir, may help reduce the severity and duration of symptoms, although they are not a cure for the disease.

Home Treatment for COVID-19

If you have COVID-19 or think, what do you have, you should isolate yourself at home and avoid contact with other people as inside, and outside of your home, to avoid the spread of the disease . This is called home isolation.. You must do it immediately, rather than waiting for COVID-19 testing.

  • As much as possible, stay in the same room and away from other people in your home. If there is a possibility, используйте отдельную ванную комнату. Не выходите из дома, кроме как для получения медицинской помощи в случае необходимости.
  • Не путешествуйте во время болезни. Do not use public transport or taxis.
  • Monitor Your Symptoms. You can get instructions on, how to check and report your symptoms.
  • Use a well-fitting face mask or respirator, which fits snugly around the nose and mouth without gaps, when you visit your health care provider and at any time, when other people are in the same room with you. If you cannot wear a mask, people in your house must wear a mask, if they need to be in the same room with you.
  • Избегайте контакта с домашними животными или другими животными. (SARS-CoV-2 может передаваться от людей к животным, но неизвестно, как часто это происходит.) Прикрывайте рот и нос салфеткой или рукавом (но не руками) при кашле или чихании. Выбросьте салфетку после использования.
  • Часто мойте руки водой с мылом не менее 20 seconds. Do this before eating or preparing food., after going to the toilet and after coughing, sneezing or blowing your nose. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (no less 60% alcohol), if soap and water are not available.
  • Don't touch your face, eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Don't share personal items, such as cups, cutlery, towels or bed linen. Wash everything, what did you use, in soapy water. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (no less 60% alcohol), if soap and water are not available.
  • Clean up all the places in the house, frequently touched, like doorknobs, plumbing in bathroom and kitchen, toilets, phone, tablets, counters and other surfaces. Use household cleaning spray and follow instructions for use.
  • is safe You should stay at home and avoid contact with people until then, until your doctor tells you, what is the way out of home isolation .

The following tips may help manage symptoms of COVID-19.

  • Rest and drink plenty of fluids.
  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help reduce fever. Sometimes providers advise you to use both types of medicines.. Ранее были опасения по поводу безопасности ибупрофена и других нестероидных противовоспалительных препаратов при использовании при COVID-19, но сейчас органы общественного здравоохранения не против их применения. Принимайте рекомендуемое количество, чтобы снизить температуру. НЕ используйте ибупрофен у детей в возрасте 6 months and younger.
  • Aspirin is good for treating fever in adults. DO NOT give aspirin to a child (younger 18 years), unless his doctor tells you so.
  • Теплая ванна или ванна с губкой могут помочь снизить лихорадку. Продолжайте принимать лекарства, иначе температура может снова подняться.
  • If you have a dry tickling cough, попробуйте леденцы от кашля или леденцы.
  • Используйте испаритель или примите душ с паром, чтобы повысить влажность воздуха и облегчить сухость в горле и кашель.
  • Не курите и держитесь подальше от курильщиков, избегая пассивного курения.

Профилактика COVID-19

Лучший способ предотвратить COVID-19 — избегать контакта с вирусом. Это можно сделать, следуя рекомендациям общественного здравоохранения, таким как ношение маски в общественных местах, соблюдение физического дистанцирования и избегание больших собраний людей. Также важно часто мыть руки водой с мылом в течение не менее 20 секунд и избегать прикосновений к лицу.

Вакцинация против COVID-19 также является высокоэффективным способом профилактики заболевания. Несколько вакцин против COVID-19 были разработаны и разрешены для использования в чрезвычайных ситуациях регулирующими органами по всему миру. It has been shown, что эти вакцины очень эффективны для предотвращения COVID-19 и снижения тяжести заболевания в случае заражения.

Used sources and literature

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. COVID-19 treatments and medications. Updated August 5, 2022. Accessed August 12, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Symptoms of COVID-19. Updated August 11, 2022. Accessed August 12, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. COVID-19: Overview of testing for SARS-CoV-2 the virus that causes COVID-19. Updated August 11, 2022. Accessed August 12, 2022.

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