Anti-TB drugs. Etambutola hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder. Easily soluble in water.
Antiphthisic, Antibacterial, bacteriostatic.
Tuberculosis (all forms) in combination with other drugs.
Hypersensitivity, gout, optic neuritis, Cataract, inflammatory diseases of the eye, diabeticheskaya retinopathy, impairment of renal function.
Age to 13 years (There are no clinical data).
Pregnancy and breast-feeding.
During pregnancy, used only on strict conditions, comparing the expected benefits and potential risks to the fetus. Pregnant women, TB patients, be treated for at least 9 several months means, vklyuchaya ethambutol. Ethambutol passes through the blood-placenta barrier, concentration in the blood of the fetus is about 30% concentration in the mother's blood. Complications in humans has not been registered.
In studies of embryo- and fetotoxicity in animals, receiving high doses of ethambutol, fetuses marked cleft lip and palate, exencephaly, malformations of the spine (most of the cervical), Cyclops, limb defects.
Ethambutol found in human milk in concentrations, equal to the concentration in maternal serum, however, complications in humans has not been registered. At the time of treatment should stop breastfeeding.
From the nervous system and sensory organs: depression, paraesthesia, dizziness, headache, disorientation, hallucinations, peripheral neuritis and polyneuropathy, optic neuritis, optic atrophy; deterioration of visual acuity, refraction and color perception (mainly green and red), narrowing the central and peripheral visual fields, Education cattle,.
From the respiratory system: increased cough, increase in the number of sputum.
From the digestive tract: anorexia, metallic taste in mouth, dyspepsia (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), abdominal pain, abnormal liver function.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, itch.
Other: leukopenia, hyperuricemia, exacerbation (access) gout, arthralgia.
It enhances the effects of anti-TB drugs and the neurotoxicity of aminoglycosides, asparaginase, karʙamazepina, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, lithium salts, methotrexate, xinina. Not recommended for use in conjunction with ethionamide because of their pharmacological antagonism. Antacids, containing aluminum hydroxide, reduce the absorption of ethambutol. Simultaneous administration of drugs, providing neurotoxic effects, It increases the risk of developing optic neuritis, peripheral neuritis and other disorders of the nervous system.
Treatment: induction of vomiting, gastric lavage.
Dosing and Administration.
Inside, after meal, 1 once a day (morning). Adults, not previously received anti-TB drugs - 15 mg / kg / day, receiving treatment - 25 mg / kg (to 30 mg / kg / day) daily for 2 Months, followed by a maintenance dose of 50 mg / kg 2-3 times per week. The maximum daily dose - 2 g. Babies with 13 years - 15-25 mg / kg / day. The maximum daily dose for children is 1 g. Duration of treatment 9 Months (to 2 years). Dosage adjustment in renal failure: if Cl creatinine >100 ml / min - 20 mg / kg / day, 70100 mL / min - 15 mg / kg / day, <70 ml / min - 10 mg / kg / day; hemodialysis - 5 mg / kg / day, dialysis day - 7 mg / kg / day.
Do not divide the daily dose into several times (It does not create a therapeutic concentration). Before and during treatment should be carried out on a monthly basis eye examination - first of each eye separately, then both eyes (Fundus examination, acuity and visual fields, tsvetovospriyatiya). Ethambutol is not recommended if you can not adequately control view (incl. age 2-3 years, critical condition, mental disorders). In the event of impairment ethambutol cancel. During treatment should regularly monitor the pattern of peripheral blood, uric acid in blood serum, liver and kidney function.
Should not be used during the drivers of vehicles and people, activities are associated with high concentration of attention.
|Active substance||Description of interaction|
|Asparaginase||FMR. Strengthens (mutually) the risk of neurotoxicity.|
|Carbamazepine||FMR. Strengthens (mutually) the risk of neurotoxicity.|
|Methotrexate||FMR. Strengthens (mutually) the risk of neurotoxicity.|
|Ciprofloxacin||FMR. Strengthens (mutually) the risk of neurotoxicity.|