Dyspareunia (pain during sex): what is this, causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, prevention

Dyspareunia (Painful Sexual Intercourse)

What is dyspareunia?

Dyspareunia – pain in the pelvic area, It occurs during or after intercourse. While the disorder can occur in both men, and women, dyspareunia is more common in women.

Why is there pain during sex and after sex

Dyspareunia in women

Causes of pain during sex for women, are believed doctors, in 75% -80% the cases are related to physical factors.

Some pain occurs during entry of the penis into the vagina, but decreases over time. Often this is due to lack of sufficient lubrication, or lack of sexual arousal and stimulation. The pain may also be associated with some medications. Antihistamines can cause vaginal dryness. Frequent douching can also cause problems with the development of lubrication.

Other causes of pain during or after sex women include:

  • Postpartum period after childbirth;
  • Vaginal infections, such as vaginal candidiasis;
  • Postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis – irritation of the vaginal mucosa due to lack of estrogen;
  • Endometriosis;
  • Herpes or genital warts;
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease – serious infection of the female genital organs;
  • Urinary tract infections;
  • Problems, affecting the pelvic bones;
  • Abnormal uterine orientation, called uterine retroversion;
  • Chronic constipation.

The cause of dyspareunia may also be associated with psychological factors:

  • Sexual trauma in the past, such as rape or sexual domogany;
  • Guilt;
  • Negative attitudes toward sex.

These factors can cause illness, called vaginismus – painful and involuntary contractions of vaginal muscles. Usually, vaginitis occurs in response to sexual trauma or other painful action, but it can also occur as a result of chronic irritation in the pelvic area.

Dyspareunia in men

The most common causes of pain during or after sex in men:

  • Prostatitis – inflammation of the prostate;
  • Uretrit – urethritis.

Pain usually occurs at the time of ejaculation.

Pain, which occurs when an erection, may cause the following problems:

  • Posthitis;
  • Loss of elasticity of the foreskin;
  • The trauma of the penis;
  • Herpes or genital warts;
  • Local allergies or irritation;
  • Chordee, caused by Peyronie's disease.

Risk factors for pain during sex

Factors, which increase the likelihood of dyspareunia include:


  • Postmenopausal;
  • Medication, causing vaginal dryness.

The appearance of both men dispaurenii, and women can provoke viral or bacterial infection.

Dyspareunia symptoms

Pain, associated with dyspareunia may:

  • Occur during or after sex;
  • Cause itching, burning, pricking;
  • Being in the area:
    • The vagina;
    • Urethra;
    • Bladder;
    • Clean;
    • Penis;
    • Testicular;
  • Occur in all phases of sexual contact or only with deep penetration of the penis;
  • It may also arise when using tampons, which absorb the natural vaginal lubrication.

Diagnosis of pain during or after sex

The diagnosis is often made based on symptoms. The doctor examined the medical history and the history of sexual relationships, perform a physical examination.


  • The doctor will examine the vaginal wall, to find:
    • Symptoms dryness;
    • Inflammation;
    • Infection;
    • Genital warts;
    • Scarring;
  • The doctor will also perform an internal pelvic examination, to find:
    • Abnormal formation in the pelvic area;
    • Sensitive areas;
    • Symptoms of endometriosis.

Men and women:

  • Your doctor may order additional tests, which may include isolation of bacterial cultures, to find infection. It can also be scheduled to run pictures, eg, using ultrasound.
  • You may be referred to a psychologist, which will help determine the, dispaureniya connected with psychological problems.

Dyspareunia treatment

Pain during or after sex female

  • Your doctor may use a water-soluble lubricant or creams, containing estrogen. Also can be assigned to other medications;
  • For infections can be treated with antibiotics or antifungal drug;
  • For the treatment of inflammation and dermatitis can be assigned to treatment using corticosteroids;
  • Viral infections, such as herpes and genital warts require mandatory treatment;
  • For the treatment of endometriosis primenyayutsyalekarstva, and in some cases it may be necessary operation.

Pain during or after sex in men

To treat prostatitis and urethritis, the doctor may recommend:

  • Treatment with antibiotics;
  • Sitz baths for the hip and buttocks in warm water;
  • Avoid alcohol and caffeine, which can worsen the symptoms of prostatitis.

Sometimes it can be operated to treat problems with the foreskin and other erectile problems.

Pain during or after sex in men and women

If dispaureniya not related to the physical cause, the treatment can be assigned to a sex therapy. You may also need a psychologist, for the treatment of psychological causes. The psychologist will help to get rid of:

  • Guilt;
  • Internal conflicts;
  • Negative memories of past sexual experiences.

Prevention dispaurenii

  • Refrain, at least six weeks, before the resumption of sexual relations after childbirth. It may also be necessary to use a lubricant due to hormonal changes, causing vaginal dryness;
  • Adhere to proper hygiene, and if necessary seek medical attention;
  • We need to practice safe sex, to prevent disease, Sexually Transmitted Infections;
  • Foreplay and stimulation before intercourse can help in the development of a sufficient amount of vaginal lubrication;
  • Use a water-soluble lubricant. Vaseline should not be used as a lubricant during sex, since it is not soluble in water, and may promote the occurrence of vaginal infections.

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