Perennial herb with stalks up to 40-50 cm, families Bezvremennikovыe (Colchicaceae). Colchicum is a wonderful subtropical endemic plant. Distributed by throughout the Greater Caucasus Range, in the Caucasus and in Eastern Georgia. For medical purposes, they prepare corms.
Colchicum speciosum – Chemical composition
Colchicum corms gorgeous contain heterocyclic alkaloids, mainly colchicine, kolhitsein and kolhamin, and glyukoalkaloidy, aromatic acid, sugar, phytosterols, flavones and other compounds.
Colchicum speciosum – Pharmacological properties
Plant alkaloids determine its overall pharmacological focus. Alkaloid kolhamin has antimitotic activity (blocks mitosis at metaphase), when parenterally administered has an inhibitory effect on the growth of tumor tissue and suppresses hematopoiesis, by direct contact with tumor cells (eg, skin cancer) drug leads to their death. From obschefarmakologicheskih properties kolhamina was established hypotensive effect of the alkaloid, and also revealed its laxative effect on the function of the gastrointestinal tract. Kolhamin has a toxic effect on blood: intragastric administration alkaloid causes anemia and leukopenia. Kolhamin slowly excreted, therefore it has a pronounced cumulative properties.
Colchicum speciosum – Use in medicine
Of all the alkaloids Colchicum speciosum currently used in medical practice only kolhamin.
Kolhaminovuyu ointment used in endophytic and exophytic form of skin cancer stage I and II. On the surface of the tumor and surrounding tissue within 0.5-1 cm is applied 1 1.5 g of ointment, closed and sealed with gauze plaster. Fold change every day; at each dressing carefully remove the remnants of the previous lubricating ointment and disintegrating tumor tissue, produce toilet in a circle tumor. The collapse of the tumor usually begins after 10-12 lubricating. The course of treatment lasts 18-25 days and in some cases only (when endophytic) - Up to 30-35 days.
After the termination of application of ointment is applied for 10-12 days and produce aseptic bandage thorough wound treatment.
Application masi contraindicated in skin cancer stage III and IV with metastases. Do not apply ointment kolhaminovuyu near mucous membranes.
Kolhamin penetrates the skin and mucous membranes, and in high doses can cause leukopenia and other side effects, which can be observed in the application of the drug inside.
It is necessary to apply the ointment with caution: Do not apply more 1,5 g ointment in one step, necessary to investigate systematically the blood and urine.
At the first signs of toxic action of the ointment cancel, administered glucose, ascorbic acid, leucogen or other stimulants leykopoeza; if necessary, blood transfusions.
The main indication for the oral administration kolhamina is cancer of the esophagus (the most pronounced effect was observed when cancer is in the lower third of the esophagus) vysokoraspolozhenny and stomach cancer (in particular, with the transition to the esophagus), not subject to surgical treatment. The best results are observed in combination with kolhamina sarcolysine. Kolhamin karioklasticheskim a poison and can delay the development of cancerous tissue; It acts as depressing way to lejko- and lymphopoiesis. When applied directly to the affected skin cancer causes the breakdown of malignant cells.
Assign product inside tablets a day for 0,006-0,01 g (6-10 Mg) depending on tolerance, better divided doses 2-3 times per day. The total course dose of 0,05-0,11 g (50-110 Mg).
The combined use with kolhamina sarcolysine prescribed both drugs at the same time inside 3 times a week. Sarkolizin - for 15 mg, less by 20-10 mg, kolhamin - for 5 mg, less often 6 mg per reception. Debilitated patients designate 10 mg and sarkolizina 4 mg kolhamina.
Before taking pills kolhamina and thoroughly crush sarkolizina, are mixed and take, drinking a small amount (1-2 Tablespoons) jelly order, to drugs linger longer on the surface of the tumor and have had it longer local action.
Patients with complete obstruction of the esophagus powder is introduced through gastrostomy hole.
The course combined treatment continues 4-5 weeks (10-15 Tricks). Upon completion of the course make a break for 1-2 months, or moving to supportive care, assigning preparations indicated doses 1-2 times per week. After the break, possibly repeat courses.
Treatment kolhamina sarcolysine and should be under close medical supervision and control of hematological; while reducing the number of leukocytes below 3,0*109/L and platelets less 100,0*109/l, stop taking medications to restore blood picture.
When receiving kolhamina and sarkolizina can appear nausea and vomiting. In overdose possible strong inhibition of hematopoiesis. Measures of prevention and treatment of these complications are the same, as in the application of other cytotoxic drugs.
In case of overdose can occur as diarrhea and temporary hair loss. When the blood in vomit and tarry stools stop treatment and spend hemostatic therapy. In the course of treatment should be carried out periodically fecal occult blood.
Treatment of esophageal cancer with a combination kolhamina sarcolysine counter with perforations in the bronchus; when a pronounced inhibition of bone marrow hematopoiesis (white blood cell count below 4,0*109/L and platelets less 100,0*109/l), as well as anemia.
Colchicum speciosum – Formulations, Dosing and Administration
Tablets kolhamina by 0,002 g (2 mg) appointed interior 3-4 times a day every other day.
Ointment kolhaminovaya It has a greenish-yellow color and consists of: kolxamina 0,5 g, timola 0,15 g, sintomitsin 0,05 g, emulsifier 26 g, alcohol 6 g, water 67,3 g (on 100 g ointment).