Anosmia, anosmia: what is this, causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, prevention

Smell – impaired; Loss of smell; Anosmia; Hyposmia; Parosmia; Dysosmia

What is anosmia?

Anosmia, also known as loss of smell, is a complete lack of smell. It happens, when the olfactory nerves, responsible for smell, damaged or torn. Anosmia can be caused by a variety of causes and can range from temporary to permanent.. In some cases, it can even lead to a loss of taste..

Causes of anosmia

Anosmia can be a symptom of various conditions, including head trauma, nasal polyps, sinus infections, deviated septum, allergies and hormonal imbalance. Some medical procedures, such as chemotherapy and radiation, can also lead to loss of smell. In some cases, the cause of anosmia is unknown..

Symptoms of anosmia

The main symptom of anosmia is the lack of smell.. People, anosmia, may also be unable to recognize odors and may have difficulty distinguishing between different odors. In some cases, this condition may be accompanied by other symptoms., such as nasal congestion, feeling of pressure in the ears and headaches.

Diagnosis of anosmia

Diagnosis of anosmia usually begins with a physical examination and a review of the person's medical history..

This may be followed by a CT scan or MRI to check for any structural abnormalities in the nasal passages or brain. Besides, you can do a smell test, to assess a person's ability to detect various odors.

Anosmia treatment

Treatment for anosmia depends on the underlying cause.

If the cause is an infection, such as a sinus infection, probably, antibiotics will be prescribed.

If a deviated septum or nasal polyps are to blame, surgery may be recommended. Allergies and hormonal imbalances can usually be effectively treated with medication..

In some cases, the cause of anosmia cannot be determined or the condition is too severe., so that it can be effectively treated. In these cases, therapeutic olfactory training may be recommended.. This includes smelling increasingly strong concentrations of familiar odors., to "awaken" the olfactory nerves and improve the sense of smell.

Prevention of anosmia

The most effective way to prevent anosmia is to avoid activities, which can lead to serious head injury, such as contact sports or traffic accidents.

You should also try to keep your nose clean and healthy., avoiding allergies, colds and sinus infections.

If you have allergies or upper respiratory infections, early treatment can help prevent complications, which can lead to anosmia.

A balanced diet and adequate rest may also help reduce the risk of anosmia..

In conclusion, anosmia or loss of smell is a condition, which can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. This can be caused by various factors, such as nasal congestion, head injury, exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, as well as certain diseases. Treatment and prevention of anosmia vary depending on the underlying cause., but addressing underlying conditions and avoiding potential causes can help prevent this condition from occurring..

Used literature and sources

Block RW, Jen JC. Smell and taste. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 399.

Whitcroft KL, Hummel T. Olfactory function and dysfunction. In: Flint PW, Francis HW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 36.

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